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With increasing sporting activity in all age groups, soft-tissue injuries to the musculoskeletal system, especially tendon and muscle injuries, are increasingly moving into the focus of sports orthopedic surgeons. Anatomically, the muscles of the human body attach to the bones at each end via a tendon.
Injuries to this muscle-tendon complex often occur as a result of chronic excentric weightbearing or overload.
A distinction is made here between injuries to the muscles in the sense of small muscle fiber tears, the somewhat larger muscle bundle tears and complex muscle tears.
While muscle fiber tears and smaller muscle bundle tears can be treated conservatively, surgical reconstruction is recommended for extensive damage, especially for active patients with the desire to, participate in sports.
If a trauma (e.g. a fall) leads to an overload of a muscle group or a specific muscle, injuries usually occur in the tendinous area. Often the affected tendons are already damaged due to degeneration.
In the upper extremity (arm), the most common sports orthopaedic tendon injuries are damage to the tendons of the biceps muscle and the triceps muscle.
In order to avoid postoperative joint stiffness, physiotherapy is performed at an early stage.
In the the lower extremity (leg), injuries of the thigh muscles and damage to the Achilles tendon play an important role in sports orthopaedics.
In order to completely restore muscular function, anchor refixation or occasionally minimally invasive tendon suture techniques are employed.
Conservative or surgical treatment is recommended on an individual basis depending on the patient age, the type and location of the rupture, level of sporting activity and the general state of health of the patient.